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This bibliography contains all publications cited in the pages of The Scyphozoa and other important references describing the biology and systematics of jellyfishes. Copyright permitting, we have linked the citations to archived PDFs. If you think a publication should be here, but is not, please, including a PDF if possible. We will add it to the bibliography. Thank you!

A - E


  • Arai, M.N. 1997. A functional biology of Scyphozoa. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • Arneson, A.C. & C. E. Cutress. 1976. Life history of Carybdea alata Reynaud, 1831 (Cubomedusae). Pp. 227-236 in Coelenterate Ecology and Behavior (G. O. Mackie ed.). Plenum Press, New York.
  • Ates, R.M.L. 1989. Medusivorous Fishes, A Review. Zoologische Mededelingen 62:29-42.
  • Ates, R.M.L. 1991. Predation on Cnidaria by vertebrates other than fishes. Hydrobiologia 216/217:305-307.


  • Bailey, P.M., AJ. Bakker, J.E. Seymour, & J. A. Wilce. 2005. A functional comparison of the venom of three Australian jellyfish - Chironex fleckeri, Chiropsalmus sp., and Carybdea xaymacana - on cytosolic Ca haemolysis and Artemia sp. lethality. Toxicon. 45:233-242.
  • Bax, N., J. Carlton, A. Mathews-Amos, R. Haedrich, F.G. Howarth, J.E. Purcell, A. Reiser, & A. Gray. 2001. The control of biological invasions in the world's oceans. Conservation Biology 15:1234.
  • Bayha, K.M., & M.N Dawson. 2010. A new family of allomorphic jellyfishes, Drymonematidae (Scyphozoa, Discomedusae), emphasizes evolution in the functional morphology and trophic ecology of gelatinous zooplankton. Biological Bulletin 219:249-267.
  • Behrends, G, & G. Schneider. 1995. Impact of Aurelia aurita medusae (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) on standing stock and community composition of mesoplankton in the Kiel Bight (western Baltic Sea). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 127:49-45.
  • Blanquet, R.S., & M.A. Phelan. 1987. An unusual blue mesogleal protein from the mangrove jellyfish Cassiopea xamachana. Mar. Biol. 94:423Ð430.
  • Blumer, M.J.F., L. von Salvini-Plawen, R. Kikinger, & T. Buchinger. 1995. Ocelli in a Cnidaria polyp: The ultrastructure of the pigment spots in Stylocoronella riedli (Scyphozoa, Stauromedusae). Zoomorphology 115:221-227.
  • Bolton, T.F., & W.M. Graham. 2004. Morphological variation among populations of an invasive jellyfish. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 278:125-139.
  • Breitburg, D.L. A. Adamack, K.A. Rose, S.E. Kolesar, M.B. Decker, J.E. Purcell, J.E. Keister & J.H. Cowan, Jr. 2003. The pattern and influence of low dissolved oxygen in the Patuxent River, a seasonally hypoxic estuary. Estuaries 26:280-297.
  • Brewer, R. H. 1989. The Annual pattern of feeding, growth, and sexual reproduction in Cyanea (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) in the Niantic River Estuary, Conneticut. Biological Bulletin 176:272-281.
  • Bridge, D., C.W. Cunningham, B. Schierwater, R. DeSalle, & L.W. Buss. 1992. Class-level relationships in the Phylum Cnidaria: evidence from mitochondrial genome structure. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89:8750-8753.
  • Bridge, D., C.W. Cunningham, R. DeSalle, & L.W. Buss. 1995. Class-level relationships in the Phylum Cnidaria: molecular and morphological evidence. Mol. Biol. Evol. 12:679-689.
  • Brierley, A.S., B.E. Axelsen, D.C. Boyer, C.P. Lynam, C.A. Didcock, H.J. Boyer, C.A.J. Sparks, J.E. Purcell, & M.J. Gibbons. 2004. Single-target echo detections of jellyfish. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 61:383-393.
  • Brown, C.W., R. R. Hood, Z. Li, M. B. Decker, T. Gross, J. E. Purcell & H. Wang. 2002. Forecasting system predicts presence of sea nettles in Chesapeake Bay. EOS, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 83:321, 325-326.
  • Bumann, D. & Jarms G. 1997 Localisation of digestion activities in the polyps of Nausithoe planulophora (Werner, 1971) and Thecoscyphus zibrowii Werner, 1984 ( Coronatae, Scyphozoa, Cnidaria). HelgolŠnder Meeresuntersuchungen 51: 477-485.
  • Burnett, J.W., J.E. Purcell, D.B. Learn, & T. Myer. 1999. A protocol to evaluate the blockade of jellyfish nematocysts by topical agents. Contact Dermatitis 40:55-56.


  • Carlton, J.T. 1996. Biological invasions and cryptogenic species. Ecology 77:1653-1655.
  • Carrette, T., P. Alderlsade & J. Seymour. 2002 Cnidome composition and prey preference in two species of cubozoans, Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsalmus sp. Toxicon 40:1547-1551.
  • Chapman, D.M. 1999. Microanatomy of the bell rim of Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Can. J. Zool. 77:34-46.
  • Collins, A.G. 2002. Phylogeny of Medusozoa and the evolution of cnidarian life cycles. J. Evol. Biol. 15:418-432.
  • Condon, R.H., M. B. Decker, & J.E. Purcell. 2001. Effects of low dissolved oxygen on survival and asexual reproduction of scyphozoan polyps (Chrysaora quinquecirrha). Hydrobiologia 451 (Dev. Hydrobiol. 155): 89-95.
  • Cornelius, P.F.S. 1997. Class Scyphozoa - jellyfish. Pp.418-432 in A guide to the seashores of eastern Africa and the western Indian Ocean islands (ed. M.D. Richmond). SIDA/Department for Research Cooperation SAREC, Sweden.
  • Coughlan, J.P., J. Seymour, & T.F. Cross. 2006. Isolation and characterisation of eight polymorphic microsatellite loci in the cubomedusan box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri, Cubozoa, Cnidaria). Mol. Ecol. Notes 6:41-43.


  • Dawson, M.N. 2003. Macro-morphological variation among cryptic species of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Mar. Biol. 143:369-379. Erratum: Mar. Biol. 144:203.
  • Dawson, M.N. 2004. Some implications of molecular phylogenetics for understanding biodiversity in jellyfishes, with an emphasis on Scyphozoa. Hydrobiologia, 530/531:249Ð260.
  • Dawson, M. N. 2005. Morphological variation and systematics in the Scyphozoa: Mastigias (Rhizostomeae, Mastigiidae) - a golden unstandard? Hydrobiologia 537:185-206. Online appendix (PDF)
  • Dawson, M.N (2005) Five new subspecies of Mastigias (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae: Mastigiidae) from marine lakes, Palau, Micronesia. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 85:679-694.
  • Dawson, M.N (2005) Morphologic and molecular redescription of Catostylus mosaicus conservativus (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae: Catostylidae) from south-east Australia. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 85:723-731.
  • Dawson, M. N. 2005. Incipient speciation of Catostylus mosaicus (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae, Catostylidae), comparative phylogeography and biogeography in south-east Australia. J. Biogeogr. 32:515-533.
  • Dawson, M. N, & W. M. Hamner. 2003. Geographic variation and behavioral evolution in marine plankton: the case of Mastigias (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae). Mar. Biol. 143:1161-1174.
  • Dawson, M.N, D.K. Jacobs. 2001. Molecular evidence for cryptic species of Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa). Biol. Bull. 200:92-96.
  • Dawson, M.N, & L.E. Martin. 2001. Geographic variation and ecological adaptation in Aurelia (Scyphozoa: Semaeostomeae): some implications from molecular phylogenetics. Hydrobiologia/Dev. Hydrobiologia 451:259-273.
  • Dawson, M.N, K.A. Raskoff, & D.K. Jacobs. 1998. Preservation of marine invertebrate tissues for DNA analyses. Molec. Mar. Biol. Biotech. 7:145-152.
  • de Bary, A. 1879. Die Erscheinung der Symbiose. Verlag Trubner, Straßburg
  • Devaney, D.M., & L.G. Eldredge. 1977. Reef and shore fauna of Hawaii. B.P. Bishop Mus. Spec. Publ. 64(1).
  • Dong, J. 2006. Laboratory observations on the life cycle of Cyanea nozakii (Semeostomida, Scyphozoa). Acta Zoologica Sinica 52:389-395.


  • Eckelbarger, K.J. & R.J. Larson. 1993. Ultrastructural study of the ovary of the sessile scyphozoan, Haliclystus octoradiatus (Cnidaria: Stauromedusae). J. Morph. 218:225-236.
  • Ender, A., & B. Schierwater. 2003. Placozoa are not derived cnidarians: evidence from molecular morphology. Mol. Biol. Evol. 20: 130Ð134.

F - J


  • Franc, A. 1995a. Classe des cubozoaires (Cubozoa Werner, 1973). Pp. 885-922 in Traité de zoologie: anatomie, systématique, biologie volume III, fascicule 2: Cnidaires, Cténaires (D. Doumenc ed.). Masson, Paris.
  • Franc, A. 1995b. Classe des scyphozoaires (Scyphozoa Goette, 1887) (=Acraspeda Gegenbaur, 1856). Pp. 597-884 in Traité de zoologie: anatomie, systématique, biologie volume III, fascicule 2: Cnidaires, Cténaires (D. Doumenc ed.). Masson, Paris.
  • Folmer, O., M. Black, W. Hoeh, R. Lutz, & R. Vrijenhoek. 1994. DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 3:294-299.
  • Ford, M.D., J.H. Costello, K.B. Heidelberg & J.E. Purcell. 1997. Swimming and feeding by the scyphomedusa Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Mar. Biol. 129:355-362.


  • Gao, S., H. Hong, & S. Zhang. 2002. Phylum Cnidaria: Class Hydrozoa - Subclass Siphonophorae, Class Scyphozoa. Fauna Sinica Invertebrata Vol. 27, 275 p.
  • Gershwin, L.A. 1999. Clonal and population variation in jellyfish symmetry. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 79:993-1000.
  • Gershwin, L.A. 2001. Systematics and biogeography of the jellyfish Aurelia labiata (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Biol. Bull. 201:104-119.
  • Gershwin, L.A. 2005. Carybdea alata Auct. and Manokia stiasnyi, reclassification to a new family with description of a new genus and two new species. Memoirs Queensland Mus. 51:501-523.
  • Gershwin, L.-A., & A.G. Collins (2002) A preliminary phylogeny of Pelagiidae (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa), with new observations of Chrysaora colorata comb. nov. J. Nat. Hist. 36:127-148.
  • Gershwin, L.A., & P. Alderslade. 2005. A new genus and species of box jellyfish (Cubozoa: Carybdeidae) from tropical Australian waters. The Beagle 21:27-36.
  • Graham, W.M., D.L. Martin, D.L. Felder, V.L. Asper, & H.M. Perry. 2003. Ecological and economic implications of a tropical jellyfish invader in the Gulf of Mexico. Biological Invasions 5:53-69.
  • Graham, W.M., F. Pagès, & W.M. Hamner. 2001. A physical context for gelatinous zooplankton aggregations: a review. Hydrobiologia 451:199-212.
  • Greenberg, N., R.L. Garthwaite, & D.C. Potts. 1996. Allozyme and morphological evidence for a newly introduced species of Aurelia in San Francisco Bay, California. Mar. Biol. 125:401-410.
  • Grosholz, E. 2002. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of coastal invasions. Trends Ecol. Evol. 17:22-27.


  • Haddad Jr., V., F.L. da Silveira, J.L.C. Cardoso & A.C. Morandini. 2002. A report of 49 cases of cnidarian envenoming from southeastern Brazilian coastal waters. Toxicon 40(10):1445-1450. (acidentes)
  • Haacke, W. 1887. Die scyphomedusen des St. Vincent Golfes. Jena. Z. Naturw. 20:588-638.
  • Haeckel, E.H.P.A. 1866. Generelle morphologie der organismenmicroform: allgemeine grundzüge der organischen formen-wissenschaft - mechanisch begründet durch die von Charles Darwin reformirte descendenz-theorie. G. Reimer, Berlin.
  • Haeckel, E.H.P.A. 1879. Das system der medusen: erster theil einer monographie der medusen. G. Fischer, Jena.
  • Hairston, N.G. Jr. 1980. The vertical distribution of diaptomid copepods in relation to body pigmentation. In: Kerfoot WC (ed) Evolution and ecology of zooplankton communities, special symposium, vol 3. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, University Press of New England, Hanover, pp. 98Ð110.
  • Hamner, W.M. 1982. Strange world of Palau's salt lakes. National Geographic 161:264Ð282.
  • Hamner, W.M., & I.R. Hauri. 1981. Long-distance horizontal migrations of zooplankton (Scyphomedusae: Mastigias). Limnol. Oceanogr. 26:414 - 423.
  • Hamner, W.M.,R.W. Gilmer, & P.P. Hamner. 1982. The physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of a stratified, saline, sulfide lake in Palau. Limnology & Oceanography 27:896Ð909.
  • Harbison, G.R., K.L. Smith, & R.H. Backus. 1973. Stygiomedusa fabulosa from the North Atlantic: its taxonomy, with a note on its natural history. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 53:615Ð617.
  • Hebert, P.D.N., A. Cywinska, S.L. Ball, & J.R. deWaard. 2003. Biological Identifications through DNA barcodes. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 270:313-322.
  • Hedgpeth, J. 1945. Re-Examination of the Adventure of the Lion's Mane. Sci. Monthly 60:227-232.
  • Heeger, T., 1998. Quallen: gefŠhrliche schšnheiten. Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH.
  • Holland, B.S. 2000. Genetics of marine bioinvasions. Hydrobiologia 420: 63-71.
  • Holland, B.S., M.N Dawson, G.L. Crow, & D.K. Hofmann. 2004. Global phylogeography of Cassiopea (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomae): molecular evidence for cryptic species and multiple Hawaiian invasions. Marine Biology 145:1119Ð1128.
  • Hon, H.-C., S.-M. Chang, & C.-C. Wang. 1978. Haitsue (Rhopilema esculentum). Science publications, Beijing, 70 pp. (In Chinese.)
  • Holst, S. & Jarms, G. 2005. Responses of solitary and colonial coronate polyps (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) to sedimentation and burial. J Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 329:230-238
  • Hood, R.R., H.V. Wang, J.E. Purcell, E.D. Houde & L.W. Harding, Jr. 1999. Modeling particles and pelagic organisms in Chesapeake Bay: convergent features control plankton distributions. J. Geophysical Res. 104:1223-1243 and 3289-3290.
  • Hsieh, Y-H. P., F-M. Leong, & J. Rudloe. 2001. Jellyfish as food. Hydrobiologia 451:11-17.
  • Hummelinck, P.W. 1968. Caribbean scyphomedusae of the genus Cassiopea. Studies on the fauna of Curaçao and other Caribbean islands No. 97.
  • Huntley, M.E., & L.A. Hobson. 1978. Medusa predation and plankton dynamics in a temperate fjord, British Columbia. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 35:257-261.


  • Ishii, H., & F. Tanaka. 2001. Food and feeding of Aurelia aurita in Tokyo Bay with an analysis of stomach contents and a measurement of digestion times. Hydrobiologia 451:311-320.
  • Ishii, H., S. Tadokoro, H. Yamanaka, & M. Omori. 1995. Population dynamics of the jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, in Tokyo Bay in 1993 with determination of ATP-related compounds. Bull. Plankton Soc. Japan 42:171-176.


  • Janas, U., & Z. Witek. 1993. The occurrence of medusae in the southern Baltic and their importance in the ecosystem, with special emphasis on Aurelia aurita. Oceanologia 34:69-84.
  • Jarms, G. 1990. Neubeschreibung dreier Arten der Gattung Nausithoe (Coronata, Scyphozoa) sowie Wiederbeschreibung der Art Nausithoe marginata Kšlliker 1853. Mitt. hamb. zool. Mus. Inst. 87: 7-39.
  • Jarms, G. 1991. Taxonomic characters from the polyp tubes of coronate medusae (Scyphozoa, Coronata). In: Coelenterate Biology: Recent Research on Cnidaria and Ctenophora. R. B. Williams, P. F. S. Cornelius, R. G. Hughes & E. A. Robson (eds). Hydrobiologia 216/217: 463-470.
  • Jarms, G. 1997. The polyps of Coronatae (Scyphozoa), a review and some new results. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Coelenterate Biology, 1995: 271-278, tabs 1-3.
  • Jarms, G. 2001. The life cycle of Nausithoe hagenbecki sp. nov. (Scyphozoa, Coronatae). Mitt. hamb. zool. Mus. Inst. 98: 13-22.
  • Jarms, G. 2003. Klasse Scyphozoa. In: Robert Hofrichter (Hrsg) Das Mittelmeer, Fauna, Flora, …kologie. Bd. II/1 BestimmungsfŸhrer: Prokaryota, Protista, Fungi, Algae, Plantae, Animalia (bis Nemertea). Spektrum Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin., S.514-531.
  • Jarms, G. 2003. Klasse Cubozoa. In: Robert Hofrichter (Hrsg) Das Mittelmeer, Fauna, Flora, …kologie. Bd. II/1 BestimmungsfŸhrer: Prokaryota, Protista, Fungi, Algae, Plantae, Animalia (bis Nemertea). Spektrum Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin., S.531-533.
  • Jarms, G., A.C. Morandini & F.L. da Silveira. 2002. Polyps of the families Atorellidae and Nausithoidae (Scyphozoa: Coronatae) new to the Brazilian fauna. Biota Neotropica 2(1):11p.
  • Jarms, G., Morandini A.C. & Silveira, F.L. da 2002. Cultivation of polyps and medusae of Coronatae (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) with a brief review of important characters. Helgoland Marine Research 56:203-210.
  • Jarms, G. Tiemann, H. & Altuna Prados, A. 2003. A new bathybenthic coronate polyp from the Bay of Biscay and off Azores Nausithoe sorbei sp. nov. (Scyphozoa, Coronatae) Mitt. hamb. zool. Mus. Inst. 100:1-11.
  • Jarms, G., Tiemann, H., BŒmstedt, U., Martinussen, M. & FossŒ, H. 1999. The holopelagic life cycle of the deep sea medusa Periphylla periphylla (Scyphozoa, Coronatae) Sarsia 84: 55-65.
  • Jarms, G., Tiemann, H. & BŒmstedt, U. 2002. Development and Biology of Periphylla (Scyphozoa, Coronatae) in a Norwegian Fjord Marine Biology 141:647-657.

K - O


  • Kawahara, M., S. Uye, J. Burnett, & H. Mianzan. 2006a. Stings of edible jellyfish (Rhopilema hispidum, Rhopilema esculentum and Nemopilema nomurai) in Japanese waters. Toxicon 48:713-716.
  • Kawahara, M., S. Uye, K. Ohtsu, & H. Iizumi. 2006b. Unusual population explosion of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) in East Asian waters. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 307:161-173.
  • Kikinger, R. 1992. Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) - Life History of a Stationary Population. Mar. Ecol. 13:333-362.
  • Kikinger, R. & L. von Salvini-Plawen. 1995. Development from polyp to Stauromedusa in Stylocoronella (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa). J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 75:899-912.
  • Kingsford, M.J. 1993. Biotic and abiotic structure in the pelagic environment: importance to small fishes. Bull. Mar. Sci. 53:393-415.
  • Kingsford, M.J., Pitt, K.A., Gillanders, B.M. 2000. Management of jellyfish fisheries, with special reference to the order Rhizostomeae. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. 38:85-156.
  • Kintner, A, S. Edwards & J. Seymour. 2005. Variation in lethality and effects of two Australian chirodropid jellyfish venoms, Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsalmus sp., in fish. Toxicon 46: 699-708.
  • Kishinouye, K. 1891. Aurelia japonica, nov. sp. Zool Mag (Tokyo) 3:288-291. JPEG [English diagnosis and figure, only]
  • Kishinouye, K. 1898. A new medusae from the California coast. Zool. Anz. 22:44-45.
  • Kishinouye, K. 1910. Some medusae of Japanese waters. J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo. 27:1-35.
  • Kishinouye, K. 1922. Echizen kurage, Nemopilema nomurai. Dobutsugaku Zasshi, Tokyo 34:343-346, pl. 9. (In Japanese.)
  • Kramp, P.L. 1956. Medusae of the Iranian Gulf. Vidensk. Medd. Dansk Naturhist. Foren 118: 235-242.
  • Kramp, P.L. 1961. Synopsis of the medusae of the World. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 40.
  • Kramp, P.L. 1965. Some medusae (mainly scyphomedusae) from Australia coastal waters. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. 89:257-278
  • Kramp, P.L. 1968. The scyphomedusae collected by the Galathea expedition 1950-52. Vidensk. Medd. Dan. Naturhist. Foren. 131:67-98.
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  • Kreps, T.A., J.E. Purcell, & K.B. Heidelberg. 1997. Escape of the ctenophore, Mnemiopsis leidyi from the scyphomedusa predator, Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Mar. Biol. 128:441-446.


  • Lamarck, J.B.P.A. de. 1835-1845. Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres, présentant les caractères généraux et particuliers de ces animaux, leurs distribution, leurs classes, leurs familles, leurs genres, et la citation des principales espèces qui s'y rapportent; précédée d'une introduction ... 2me éd. rev. et augm. par G.P. Deshayes et H. Milne Edwards. Paris: Baillire.
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  • Little, M., P. Pereira, R. Mulcahy, P. Cullen, T. Carrette & J. Seymour. 2003. Severe cardiac failure associated with presumed jellyfish sting; can we really call it severe irukandji syndrome? Anesth. Emerg. Med. 31: 642-647.
  • Lynam, C. P., S. J. Hay, & A. S. Brierley. 2004. Interannual variability in abundance of North Sea jellyfish and links to the North Atlantic Oscillation. Limnol. Oceanogr. 49: 637-643.
  • Lynam, C. P., S. J. Hay, & A. S. Brierley. 2005. Jellyfish abundance and climatic variation: contrasting responses in oceanographically distinct regions of the North Sea and possible implications for fisheries. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 85: 435-450.
  • Lynam, C. P., M. J. Gibbons, B. E. Axelsen, C. A. J. Sparks, J. Coetzee, B. G. Heywood, & A. S. Brierley. 2006. Jellyfish overtake fish in a heavily fished ecosystem. Curr. Biol. 16: R492-R493.


  • Maas, O. 1903. Die Scyphomedusen der Siboga-Expedition. Sibogaä Expeditie XI: 1-91. pl. 1-12. Taf. I-XII
  • Maas, O. 1907. Die Scyphomedusen. Ergebnisse und Fortschritte der Zoologie 1:189-238.
  • Mariscal, R.N. 1974. Nematocysts. Pp. 129-178 in Coelenterate Biology (eds. L. Muscatine & H.M. Lenhoff). Academic Press, New York.
  • Marques, A.C., & A.G. Collins. 2004. Cladistic analysis of Medusozoa and cnidarian evolution. Invertebrate Biology 123:23-42.
  • Marques, A.C., A.C. Morandini & A.E. Migotto. 2003. Synopsis of knowledge on Cnidaria Medusozoa from Brazil. Biota Neotropica 3(2):18p.
  • Martin, L.E. 1999. The population biology and ecology of Aurelia sp. (Scyphozoa: Semaeostomeae) in a tropical meromictic marine lake in Palau, Micronesia. PhD thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.
  • Matanoski, J.C., R.R. Hood, R.L. Owens, & J.E. Purcell. 2004. Patterns in jellyfish swimming: a novel approach to studying behavior in individuals. Mar. Biol. 145:303-313.
  • Matanoski, J.C., R.R. Hood, and J.E. Purcell. 2001. Characterizing the effect of prey on swimming and feeding efficiency of the scyphomedusa Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Mar. Biol. 139:191-200.
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