Cubomedusae

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  • Class - Cubozoa (Werner 1975)
  • Order - Cubomedusae (Haeckel 1877)
  • Characteristics of the Order (from Kramp 1961)

Scyphomedusae with umbrella margin not cleft into lappets; with four interradial tentacles or groups of tentacles situated on gelatinous, wing-shaped or spatula-shaped structures (pedalia); with four perradial sense organs situated within niches on the sides of the bell; with four wide perradial sacs extending outwards from the central stomach into the subumbrellar cavity, incompletely separated by interradial septa; with four pairs of leaf-shaped gonads attached along the interradial septa and extending into the gastrovascular space; the opening of the bell cavity partly closed by an annular diaphragm (velarium).


The taxonomic rank and phylogenetic position of the box jellyfishes has been much debated. They were originally considered to be an order (Cubomedusae Haeckel 1877) in the Class Scyphozoa (e.g. Mayer 1910; Kramp 1961). In the mid-1970's, however, they were given the status of a class (Cubozoa Werner 1975; see also Mianzan & Cornelius 1999) on the basis of morphological differences. Recent molecular data, however, raised a paradox in that Class Cubozoa was more closely related than Order Stauromedusae to the other scyphozoan orders Coronatae, Semaeostomeae, and Rhizostomeae, i.e. "Scyphozoa" was paraphyletic (e.g. Collins 2002). This issue has now been resolved with elevation of stauromedusae to Class Staurozoa (e.g. Marques & Collins 2004; Dawson in press). The list of families, genera, and species below is based largely on Kramp (1961), Southcott (1967), Pagès et al. (1992), Mianzan & Cornelius (1999), ZooBank, and the various recent publications of Gershwin. The group continues to be the subject of several morphological and molecular investigations which should help to clarify species relationships and boundaries.

Cubomedusae Species

Collections: M = morphology, D = DNA. Type = *

Key:

Family (5)
Carybdea sivickisi Stiasny 1926
  • Genus (13)
    • Species (32)


Carybdeidae

Gegenbaur 1856

  • Carybdea Péron & Lesueur 1809
    • Carybdea marsupialis (Linné 1758)*
    • Carybdea rastoni Haacke 1886
    • Carybdea sivickisi Stiasny 1926 pictured
    • Carybdea xaymacanaConant 1897
  • Tripedalia Conant 1897
    • Tripedalia binata Moore 1988
    • Tripedalia cystophora Conant 1897 pictured
Tripedalia cystophora Conant 1897


Alatinidae

Gershwin 2005

  • Alatina Gershwin 2005
    • Alatina alata (Reynaud 1830) *
    • Alatina grandis (Agassiz & Mayer 1902)
    • Alatina madraspatana(Menon 1930)
    • Alatina mordens Gershwin 2005
    • Alatina moseri (Mayer 1906)
    • Alatina pyramis (Haeckel 1880)
    • Alatina rainensis Gershwin 2005
    • Alatina tetraptera (Haeckel 1880)
      Tamoya haplonema (F. Müller, 1859)
  • Manokia (Soutcott 1967)
    • Manokia stisnyi (Bigelow 1938)*


Tamoyidae

Haeckel 1880

  • Carukia Soutcott 1967
    • Carukia barnesi Southcott 1967 *
    • Carukia shinju Gershwin 2005
  • Gerongia Gershwin & Alderslade 2005
    • Gerongia rifkinae Gershwin & Alderslade 2005 *
  • Malo Gershwin 2005
    • Malo maxima Gershwin 2005
  • Tamoya Muller 1859
    • Tamoya haeckeli Southcott 1967
    • Tamoya haplonema Muller 1859 * pictured


Chirodropidae

Haeckel 1877

  • Chirodropus Haeckel 1880
    • Chirodropus gorilla Haeckel 1880 *
    • Chirodropus palmatus Haeckel 1880
    • Chirodropus sp. Stiasny 1992
  • Chironex Southcott 1956
    Chiropsalmus quadrumanus Müller 1859
    • Chironex fleckeri Southcott 1956 *


Chiropsalmidae

Thiel 1936

  • Chiropsalmus L. Agassiz 1862
    • Chiropsalmus alipes Gershwin 2006
    • Chiropsalmus maculatus Cornelius et al. 2005
    • Chiropsalmus quadrumanus Müller 1859 * pictured
    • Chiropsalmus zygonema Haeckel 1880
  • Chiropsoides Southott 1956
    • Chiropsoides buitendijki (Horst 1907)
    • Chiropsoides quadrigatus (Haeckel 1880) pictured
  • Chiropsella Gershwin 2006
Chiropsoides quadrigatus Haeckel 1880
    • Chiropsella bronzie Gershwin 2006 *


See Zoo Bank ([1]) for more information.

Compiled by M.N Dawson, L.A. Gershwin, G. Jarms, H. Mianzan, A.C. Morandini. Updated by M.N Dawson (August 2007). Further update pending.